在Java中异步编程,不一定非要使用rxJava, Java本身的库中的CompletableFuture可以很好的应对大部分的场景。

原文:20 Examples of Using Java’s CompletableFuture, 作者 Mahmoud Anouti。

这篇文章介绍 Java 8 的CompletionStage API和它的标准库的实现CompletableFuture。API通过例子的方式演示了它的行为,每个例子演示一到两个行为。

既然CompletableFuture类实现了CompletionStage接口,首先我们需要理解这个接口的契约。它代表了一个特定的计算的阶段,可以同步或者异步的被完成。你可以把它看成一个计算流水线上的一个单元,最终会产生一个最终结果,这意味着几个CompletionStage可以串联起来,一个完成的阶段可以触发下一阶段的执行,接着触发下一次,接着……

除了实现CompletionStage接口,CompletableFuture也实现了future接口, 代表一个未完成的异步事件。CompletableFuture提供了方法,能够显式地完成这个future,所以它叫CompletableFuture。

1、 创建一个完成的CompletableFuture

最简单的例子就是使用一个预定义的结果创建一个完成的CompletableFuture,通常我们会在计算的开始阶段使用它。

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static void completedFutureExample() {    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("message");    assertTrue(cf.isDone());    assertEquals("message", cf.getNow(null));}

getNow(null)方法在future完成的情况下会返回结果,就比如上面这个例子,否则返回null (传入的参数)。

2、运行一个简单的异步阶段

这个例子创建一个一个异步执行的阶段:

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static void runAsyncExample() {    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.runAsync(() -> {        assertTrue(Thread.currentThread().isDaemon());        randomSleep();    });    assertFalse(cf.isDone());    sleepEnough();    assertTrue(cf.isDone());}

通过这个例子可以学到两件事情:

CompletableFuture的方法如果以Async结尾,它会异步的执行(没有指定executor的情况下), 异步执行通过ForkJoinPool实现, 它使用守护线程去执行任务。注意这是CompletableFuture的特性, 其它CompletionStage可以override这个默认的行为。

3、在前一个阶段上应用函数

下面这个例子使用前面#1
的完成的CompletableFuture, #1返回结果为字符串message,然后应用一个函数把它变成大写字母。

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static void thenApplyExample() {    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("message").thenApply(s -> {        assertFalse(Thread.currentThread().isDaemon());        return s.toUpperCase();    });    assertEquals("MESSAGE", cf.getNow(null));}

注意thenApply方法名称代表的行为。

then意味着这个阶段的动作发生当前的阶段正常完成之后。本例中,当前节点完成,返回字符串message。

Apply意味着返回的阶段将会对结果前一阶段的结果应用一个函数。

函数的执行会被阻塞
,这意味着getNow()只有打斜操作被完成后才返回。

4、在前一个阶段上异步应用函数

通过调用异步方法(方法后边加Async后缀),串联起来的CompletableFuture可以异步地执行(使用ForkJoinPool.commonPool())。

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static void thenApplyAsyncExample() {    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("message").thenApplyAsync(s -> {        assertTrue(Thread.currentThread().isDaemon());        randomSleep();        return s.toUpperCase();    });    assertNull(cf.getNow(null));    assertEquals("MESSAGE", cf.join());}

5、使用定制的Executor在前一个阶段上异步应用函数

异步方法一个非常有用的特性就是能够提供一个Executor来异步地执行CompletableFuture。这个例子演示了如何使用一个固定大小的线程池来应用大写函数。

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static ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(3, new ThreadFactory() {    int count = 1;     @Override    public Thread newThread(Runnable runnable) {        return new Thread(runnable, "custom-executor-" + count++);    }}); static void thenApplyAsyncWithExecutorExample() {    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("message").thenApplyAsync(s -> {        assertTrue(Thread.currentThread().getName().startsWith("custom-executor-"));        assertFalse(Thread.currentThread().isDaemon());        randomSleep();        return s.toUpperCase();    }, executor);     assertNull(cf.getNow(null));    assertEquals("MESSAGE", cf.join());}

6、消费前一阶段的结果

如果下一阶段接收了当前阶段的结果,但是在计算的时候不需要返回值(它的返回类型是void), 那么它可以不应用一个函数,而是一个消费者, 调用方法也变成了thenAccept:

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static void thenAcceptExample() {    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    CompletableFuture.completedFuture("thenAccept message")            .thenAccept(s -> result.append(s));    assertTrue("Result was empty", result.length() > 0);}

本例中消费者同步地执行,所以我们不需要在CompletableFuture调用join方法。

7、异步地消费迁移阶段的结果

同样,可以使用thenAcceptAsync方法, 串联的CompletableFuture可以异步地执行。

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static void thenAcceptAsyncExample() {    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("thenAcceptAsync message")            .thenAcceptAsync(s -> result.append(s));    cf.join();    assertTrue("Result was empty", result.length() > 0);}

8、完成计算异常

现在我们来看一下异步操作如何显式地返回异常,用来指示计算失败。我们简化这个例子,操作处理一个字符串,把它转换成答谢,我们模拟延迟一秒。

我们使用thenApplyAsync(Function, Executor)方法,第一个参数传入大写函数, executor是一个delayed executor,在执行前会延迟一秒。

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static void completeExceptionallyExample() {    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("message").thenApplyAsync(String::toUpperCase,            CompletableFuture.delayedExecutor(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS));    CompletableFuture exceptionHandler = cf.handle((s, th) -> { return (th != null) ? "message upon cancel" : ""; });    cf.completeExceptionally(new RuntimeException("completed exceptionally"));assertTrue("Was not completed exceptionally", cf.isCompletedExceptionally());    try {        cf.join();        fail("Should have thrown an exception");    } catch(CompletionException ex) { // just for testing        assertEquals("completed exceptionally", ex.getCause().getMessage());    }     assertEquals("message upon cancel", exceptionHandler.join());}

让我们看一下细节。

首先我们创建了一个CompletableFuture, 完成后返回一个字符串message,接着我们调用thenApplyAsync方法,它返回一个CompletableFuture。这个方法在第一个函数完成后,异步地应用转大写字母函数。

这个例子还演示了如何通过delayedExecutor(timeout, timeUnit)延迟执行一个异步任务。

我们创建了一个分离的handler阶段: exceptionHandler, 它处理异常异常,在异常情况下返回message upon cancel。

下一步我们显式地用异常完成第二个阶段。 在阶段上调用join方法,它会执行大写转换,然后抛出CompletionException(正常的join会等待1秒,然后得到大写的字符串。不过我们的例子还没等它执行就完成了异常), 然后它触发了handler阶段。

9、取消计算

和完成异常类似,我们可以调用cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning)取消计算。对于CompletableFuture类,布尔参数并没有被使用,这是因为它并没有使用中断去取消操作,相反,cancel等价于completeExceptionally(new CancellationException())。

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static void cancelExample() {    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("message").thenApplyAsync(String::toUpperCase,            CompletableFuture.delayedExecutor(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS));    CompletableFuture cf2 = cf.exceptionally(throwable -> "canceled message");    assertTrue("Was not canceled", cf.cancel(true));    assertTrue("Was not completed exceptionally", cf.isCompletedExceptionally());    assertEquals("canceled message", cf2.join());}

10、在两个完成的阶段其中之一上应用函数

下面的例子创建了CompletableFuture,applyToEither处理两个阶段, 在其中之一上应用函数(包保证哪一个被执行)。 本例中的两个阶段一个是应用大写转换在原始的字符串上, 另一个阶段是应用小些转换。

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static void applyToEitherExample() {    String original = "Message";    CompletableFuture cf1 = CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original)            .thenApplyAsync(s -> delayedUpperCase(s));    CompletableFuture cf2 = cf1.applyToEither(            CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApplyAsync(s -> delayedLowerCase(s)),            s -> s + " from applyToEither");    assertTrue(cf2.join().endsWith(" from applyToEither"));}

11、在两个完成的阶段其中之一上调用消费函数

和前一个例子很类似了,只不过我们调用的是消费者函数 (Function变成Consumer):

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static void acceptEitherExample() {    String original = "Message";    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original)            .thenApplyAsync(s -> delayedUpperCase(s))            .acceptEither(CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApplyAsync(s -> delayedLowerCase(s)),                    s -> result.append(s).append("acceptEither"));    cf.join();    assertTrue("Result was empty", result.toString().endsWith("acceptEither"));}

12、在两个阶段都执行完后运行一个Runnable

这个例子演示了依赖的CompletableFuture如果等待两个阶段完成后执行了一个Runnable。 注意下面所有的阶段都是同步执行的,第一个阶段执行大写转换,第二个阶段执行小写转换。

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static void runAfterBothExample() {    String original = "Message";    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(String::toUpperCase).runAfterBoth(            CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(String::toLowerCase),            () -> result.append("done"));    assertTrue("Result was empty", result.length() > 0);}

13、 使用BiConsumer处理两个阶段的结果

上面的例子还可以通过BiConsumer来实现:

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static void thenAcceptBothExample() {    String original = "Message";    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(String::toUpperCase).thenAcceptBoth(            CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(String::toLowerCase),            (s1, s2) -> result.append(s1 + s2));    assertEquals("MESSAGEmessage", result.toString());}

14、使用BiFunction处理两个阶段的结果

如果CompletableFuture依赖两个前面阶段的结果, 它复合两个阶段的结果再返回一个结果,我们就可以使用thenCombine()函数。整个流水线是同步的,所以getNow()会得到最终的结果,它把大写和小写字符串连接起来。

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static void thenCombineExample() {    String original = "Message";    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(s -> delayedUpperCase(s))            .thenCombine(CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(s -> delayedLowerCase(s)),                    (s1, s2) -> s1 + s2);    assertEquals("MESSAGEmessage", cf.getNow(null));}

15、异步使用BiFunction处理两个阶段的结果

类似上面的例子,但是有一点不同: 依赖的前两个阶段异步地执行,所以thenCombine()也异步地执行,即时它没有Async后缀。

Javadoc中有注释:

Actions supplied for dependent completions of non-async methods may be performed by the thread that completes the current CompletableFuture, or by any other caller of a completion method

所以我们需要join方法等待结果的完成。

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static void thenCombineAsyncExample() {    String original = "Message";    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original)            .thenApplyAsync(s -> delayedUpperCase(s))            .thenCombine(CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApplyAsync(s -> delayedLowerCase(s)),                    (s1, s2) -> s1 + s2);    assertEquals("MESSAGEmessage", cf.join());}

16、组合 CompletableFuture

我们可以使用thenCompose()完成上面两个例子。这个方法等待第一个阶段的完成(大写转换), 它的结果传给一个指定的返回CompletableFuture函数,它的结果就是返回的CompletableFuture的结果。

有点拗口,但是我们看例子来理解。函数需要一个大写字符串做参数,然后返回一个CompletableFuture, 这个CompletableFuture会转换字符串变成小写然后连接在大写字符串的后面。

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static void thenComposeExample() {    String original = "Message";    CompletableFuture cf = CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(s -> delayedUpperCase(s))            .thenCompose(upper -> CompletableFuture.completedFuture(original).thenApply(s -> delayedLowerCase(s))                    .thenApply(s -> upper + s));    assertEquals("MESSAGEmessage", cf.join());}

17、当几个阶段中的一个完成,创建一个完成的阶段

下面的例子演示了当任意一个CompletableFuture完成后, 创建一个完成的CompletableFuture.

待处理的阶段首先创建, 每个阶段都是转换一个字符串为大写。因为本例中这些阶段都是同步地执行(thenApply), 从anyOf中创建的CompletableFuture会立即完成,这样所有的阶段都已完成,我们使用whenComplete(BiConsumer<? super Object, ? super Throwable> action)处理完成的结果。

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static void anyOfExample() {    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    List messages = Arrays.asList("a", "b", "c");    List<CompletableFuture> futures = messages.stream()            .map(msg -> CompletableFuture.completedFuture(msg).thenApply(s -> delayedUpperCase(s)))            .collect(Collectors.toList());    CompletableFuture.anyOf(futures.toArray(new CompletableFuture[futures.size()])).whenComplete((res, th) -> {        if(th == null) {            assertTrue(isUpperCase((String) res));            result.append(res);        }    });    assertTrue("Result was empty", result.length() > 0);}

18、当所有的阶段都完成后创建一个阶段

上一个例子是当任意一个阶段完成后接着处理,接下来的两个例子演示当所有的阶段完成后才继续处理, 同步地方式和异步地方式两种。

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static void allOfExample() {    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    List messages = Arrays.asList("a", "b", "c");    List<CompletableFuture> futures = messages.stream()            .map(msg -> CompletableFuture.completedFuture(msg).thenApply(s -> delayedUpperCase(s)))            .collect(Collectors.toList());    CompletableFuture.allOf(futures.toArray(new CompletableFuture[futures.size()])).whenComplete((v, th) -> {        futures.forEach(cf -> assertTrue(isUpperCase(cf.getNow(null))));        result.append("done");    });    assertTrue("Result was empty", result.length() > 0);}

19、当所有的阶段都完成后异步地创建一个阶段

使用thenApplyAsync()替换那些单个的CompletableFutures的方法,allOf()会在通用池中的线程中异步地执行。所以我们需要调用join方法等待它完成。

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static void allOfAsyncExample() {    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();    List messages = Arrays.asList("a", "b", "c");    List<CompletableFuture> futures = messages.stream()            .map(msg -> CompletableFuture.completedFuture(msg).thenApplyAsync(s -> delayedUpperCase(s)))            .collect(Collectors.toList());    CompletableFuture allOf = CompletableFuture.allOf(futures.toArray(new CompletableFuture[futures.size()]))            .whenComplete((v, th) -> {                futures.forEach(cf -> assertTrue(isUpperCase(cf.getNow(null))));                result.append("done");            });    allOf.join();    assertTrue("Result was empty", result.length() > 0);}

20、真实的例子

Now that the functionality of CompletionStage and specifically CompletableFuture is explored, the below example applies them in a practical scenario:

现在你已经了解了CompletionStage 和 CompletableFuture 的一些函数的功能,下面的例子是一个实践场景:

  1. 首先异步调用cars方法获得Car的列表,它返回CompletionStage场景。cars消费一个远程的REST API。
  2. 然后我们复合一个CompletionStage填写每个汽车的评分,通过rating(manufacturerId)返回一个CompletionStage, 它会异步地获取汽车的评分(可能又是一个REST API调用)
  3. 当所有的汽车填好评分后,我们结束这个列表,所以我们调用allOf得到最终的阶段, 它在前面阶段所有阶段完成后才完成。
  4. 在最终的阶段调用whenComplete(),我们打印出每个汽车和它的评分。
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cars().thenCompose(cars -> {    List<CompletionStage> updatedCars = cars.stream()            .map(car -> rating(car.manufacturerId).thenApply(r -> {                car.setRating(r);                return car;            })).collect(Collectors.toList());     CompletableFuture done = CompletableFuture            .allOf(updatedCars.toArray(new CompletableFuture[updatedCars.size()]));    return done.thenApply(v -> updatedCars.stream().map(CompletionStage::toCompletableFuture)            .map(CompletableFuture::join).collect(Collectors.toList()));}).whenComplete((cars, th) -> {    if (th == null) {        cars.forEach(System.out::println);    } else {        throw new RuntimeException(th);    }}).toCompletableFuture().join();

因为每个汽车的实例都是独立的,得到每个汽车的评分都可以异步地执行,这会提高系统的性能(延迟),而且,等待所有的汽车评分被处理使用的是allOf方法,而不是手工的线程等待(Thread#join() 或 a CountDownLatch)。

这些例子可以帮助你更好的理解相关的API,你可以在github上得到所有的例子的代码。

其它参考文档

  1. Reactive programming with Java 8 and simple-react : The Tutorial
  2. CompletableFuture Overview
  3. CompletableFuture vs Future: going async with Java 8 new features
  4. spotify/completable-futures

转自http://www.udpwork.com

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